The DNP region of Rajasthan faces a major problem in livestock production and management








Tar





The Great Indian Desert or Thar Desert is the easternmost limit of the Persian-Arabian Desert reaching 1.3 million square miles [1.3 million sq km] in India and Pakistan. It is one of the most beautiful places in our vast and diverse world and contradicts the popular notion that deserts are arid deserts; this unique place hosts a rich variety of lives.












The purpose of building the Desert National Park Wildlife Sanctuary is to preserve a representative sample of the desert ecosystem for future generations. The 1976 National Commission on Agriculture emphasized the establishment of a biosphere reserve in the desert region. The vision was also to protect the desert ecosystem in a natural way in the future. This management plan has been prepared to achieve the objectives envisaged during the construction of the park. Every step is taken to keep the unique characteristics of the desert as they are.

The Thar Desert extends over 2.3 million km2, 85% of which is in India and the remaining half in Pakistan. It covers more than 2 million km2 in Rajasthan and extends to Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana. Native plants and animals have adapted to life in harsh conditions. Man, through his long association with the desert, has changed a number of cultural practices, which are not evident in other parts of India. Several species of domestic animals and plants have become accustomed to living in the desert. The Thar is the most populated desert in the world and over the past 4-5 decades has seen tremendous growth in human and animal populations as well as deeply unpopular development activities. Gas and oil are found in large quantities in many desert areas. The desert is undergoing rapid changes, which will have a lasting and sometimes irreversible effect on the fragile ecosystem of this unique ecosystem.












Livestock are an important asset for poor rural people in developing countries, but they face a major challenge in accessing seasonal foods. A study was conducted to assess the available and potential feeds for the production of feed and livestock in the southern hemisphere. A flow verification tool was used to collect the required data. The assessment includes group discussions and individual interviews. The results showed that seasonal shortages, lack of livestock supply and lack of watering facilities are the main challenges facing livestock production in the study areas. Pastures and collard greens were the main food source for animals during the rainy season and crop residues, fodder trees and shrubs were the main food sources during the dry season.

Floors:

The Thar Desert is a temporary shelter between large wind belts. The whole desert consists of low slopes covered with sand dunes and barren hills. Throughout the Thar Desert as a whole, mixed, medium-sized and fine-grained sediments abound. The desert floor is limited only to the world of “magra”. Windblown sand, due to aerodynamic processes and biotic disturbances, forms shifting sand dunes, which over time change places or move from place to place. Shifting sand dunes are very common near Sam, Khuri, Dav and Miajlar. Most dunes are occupied by pioneer plants such as Aerva javanica, Aristida sp. Polygonoid Calligonum, Cenchrus sp. Cyperus atkinsonii etc. which leads to the stabilization of the dunes. Interdune depressions are composed of erosion and dry beds of desert streams. The salt pans are very limited and there is no permanent water source. However, seasonal streams in an area called ‘Nalas’ flow a few days immediately after the rains. Rainwater is collected and raised in the ‘Khadeens’ and ‘Nadis’ for drinking and planting in the wetlands.

Types of forests, cover and fauna:

The great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) or Indian bustard found on the Indian subcontinent. A large bird with a horizontal body and long bare legs giving it the appearance of an ostrich, this bird is one of the most difficult birds to fly.












A major problem in animal production

Food shortages, farmers’ insufficient knowledge of animal production, genetic deficiency of traditional cattle breeds, disease and land scarcity have been major issues affecting animal production in all agro-ecologies with declining value. .

Some of the most significant environmental issues affecting livestock production include global warming, tropical deforestation, water use issues, ethnic and desert areas, and livestock-wildlife interactions.

Many physical, biological and socio-economic factors act together to influence the environment and the level of animal husbandry practiced in any region. Climate, which includes both temperature and precipitation, can affect any animal’s ability to survive and reproduce in several ways.

Limited availability of quality breeding bulls. Lack of vaccines and vaccination planning. Due to industrial growth and urbanization, many pastures are degraded or occupied. Diversion of food ingredients and fodder for industrial use.

These three challenges – feeding the growing population, providing farmers with livelihoods and protecting the environment – ​​must be addressed if we are to achieve lasting progress in any of them.

  • Healthy cows are essential for good beef and milk production.

  • Provision of shelter. The provision of adequate shelter is another human factor that contributes to animal production.

  • Farming skills.

  • Availability of water.

  • Diseases and epidemics.

  • Weather.

Current challenges in the global food system

Let’s start with the most obvious. The global food system is expected to provide safe and nutritious food to people that could grow from 7.5 billion people today to nearly 10 billion people by 2050. economically, there will be a demand for meat, fish and milk.

However, food production is only part of the food system. The agro-food sector also provides livelihoods for millions of people. Globally, the poorest people live in rural areas where food production is often the most important economic activity. Today there are approximately 570 million farms in the world and millions more people are employed in food-related activities.

The global food system has a great natural history. In fact, agriculture occupies about 40% of the world, more than any other human activity. In addition, irrigation of agricultural crops accounts for 70% of global water use, and agriculture directly affects around 11% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly livestock). Expansion of agricultural land can also lead to deforestation, GHG extinction and biodiversity loss.












The advantages of farming are:

  • Animal husbandry helps us provide proper food, shelter, and disease protection in companion animals. Therefore, breeding helps in managing pets.

  • Breeding helps us develop more productive species of different breeds. Thus, animal husbandry increases the availability of various food products such as milk, eggs, and meat, which are found in pets.

  • Livestock contributes to improving the quality of life of farmers. Due to the high production of animal products, farmers’ incomes are increasing.

The disadvantages of:

  • Animals eat grass with large holes, thereby destroying vegetation.

  • Overfeeding in the forests has led to soil erosion.

  • This disrupts the local ecosystem. It inhibits normal feeding activity due to domestication.

  • A major source of methane, one of the main causes of global warming.

  • The spread of the disease

  • High maintenance costs

A major source of increased animal production in the study area:

Livestock play an important role in food – notably through the consumption of animal products by breeders and their families; and indirectly for the sale of animals and animal products as a source of income.

In the past, food security studies that focused on calculating grain production and the importance of livestock in food security were rarely tested. It is said that the role of livestock in food is often underestimated. However, it is not easy to quantify the actual role of livestock to include elements without direct food production; an effective method of measuring the value of livestock has yet to be established. Livestock can be viewed as a production system as shown in Figure 1, which divides the system into the following: inputs; animal health; animals that are a production unit; product results; and a market that buys products and sets a price for the manufacturer. Each of these steps is tested.

  • Nutrition and food.

  • Breeding and Breeding.

  • Health and disease. Economic factor.

  • Economic and Social. Environmental factor

  • Habitat and environment: Luxury needs.

Reference:

  • Park Management, Land Use Patterns and People’s Perceptions: Case of Desert National Park, Rajasthan, India. Nagothu Udaya Sekhar, Ulrik A. Motzfeldt and N. Shanmugaratnam,

  • DESERT NATIONAL PARK – Biodiversity Reporthttp://forestsclearance.nic.in › wildlife › Userdetail












Authors

Jhabar mal tetarwal* 1 Vinod Bhateshwar2goat chopra1Avinash Bochalya3,

1Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Production, Sam Hingginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Science, Prayagraj – 211 007.

2Ph.D. Research Fellow Department of Dairy Science and Food Technology Institute of Agricultural Sciences BHU Varanasi -221005, UP India

3Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Dantiwada Agricultural University, Gujarat 385506

1*E-mail: [email protected]

(corresponding author)






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